What is CBD (cannabidiol)
The hemp plant contains about 115 cannabinoids and over 400 other active ingredients. The main cannabinoids are the intoxicating tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the non- intoxicating cannabidiol (CBD). CBD, unlike THC, is not psychoactive, i.e. it does not cause psychological effects. In Switzerland, cannabis products containing less than 1% THC are legal. Anyone who is at least 18 years old can buy CBD oils, teas, powders, pastes or joints in Switzerland.
Depending on the variety, cannabis plants contain differently composed active profiles - the cannabinoids. The two best known are THC and CBD. Cannabinoids are chemical compounds that activate the cannabinoid receptors in our body.
Phytocannabinoids are the vegetable forms of these chemical compounds. They are found in the highest concentrations in female cannabis flowers - more precisely in the resin glands on the flower surface. Today more than 115 different cannabinoids are known. Each cannabinoid has a unique influence on the endocannabinoid system (ECS), i.e. the cannabinoid receptors in the body. Today it is known that all ingredients of the cannabis plant (cannabinoids, terpenes and other chemical compounds) together achieve the best therapeutic effect = entourage effect.
Cannabinoids are produced naturally in the body and are important for homeostasis. Their absence from the body significantly affects our health and mood. Researchers have shown how important CBD is for maintaining normal body functions.
The top five cannabinoids are:
- CBC: CBC is said to have an anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect. It can have a positive effect on the renewal of cells.
- CBD: CBD is the second most common cannabinoid and is used to relieve chronic pain. It is used, for example, to treat migraines, cramps, arthritis, inflammation or even epilepsy and other pains.
- CBDA: The cannabinoid CBDA is said to have an antiemetic effect and can therefore help against nausea. CBDA is also said to have a positive effect on cancer, especially in breast cancer, it is said to be able to cause the death of bad cancer cells.
- CBG: CBG is a cannibigerol with antibacterial properties.
- CBN: CBN is said to have a slightly psychoactive effect. However, it is only found in very small amounts in hemp plants. CBN helps to reduce anxiety and can help to lower intraocular pressure.
The ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM
Everyone has an endocannabinoid system (ECS), so everyone could benefit from the advantages that cannabinoids like CBDs can provide. But not only the human organism has such a system. It is also common in the animal world that there is actually no vertebrate animal without the ECS. Therefore CBD can also have a positive effect on pets! The ECS plays an important role in many different processes in the body (e.g. appetite, stress). The ECS works with the body's own cannabinoids, but also with exogenous substances such as CBD, THC etc. CBD docks on to ECS receptors and inhibits certain enzymes there or causes certain modes of action. What makes CBD so interesting for professional medical use is that the body has the appropriate receptors to which the cannabinoids can dock. This makes CBD one of the food supplements for which users report particularly rapid effects.
Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids
Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are very important for the body, provided they are in the right ratio. This is the case in CBD oil. The ratio is 1:3.
Both fatty acids have a great influence on the regeneration and renewal of the cells, and the structure of the cell membrane can also benefit from them. Both fatty acids have an anti-inflammatory effect because they are in an optimal ratio to each other. This also has a positive effect on blood pressure.
Gamma linolenic acid
The anti-inflammatory gamma-linolenic acid is also contained in CBD oil.
Cannabidiol oil contains a variety of vitamins. In large quantities it contains above all vitamin E.
Besides vitamin E, vitamins B1 and B2 are also found in CBD oil.
Minerals and trace elements
In addition to cannabinoids, fatty acids and vitamins, cannabidiol oil also contains important minerals and trace elements that the human organism needs for life:
- Iron: The trace element helps transport oxygen through the blood to the cells.
- Potassium: The mineral has an influence on the water balance and also contributes to impulse transmission to the nerves.
- Calcium: Calcium is an important mineral for strengthening teeth, bones and cartilage. Since it cannot be produced by the body itself, it must be taken in with food.
- Copper: The trace element helps to strengthen the immune system and is important for the formation of red blood cells. The body cannot store copper, so it must be taken in with food.
- Manganese: Manganese is an important trace element for the connective tissue. It also plays a role in necessary enzyme processes in the body.
- Magnesium: The mineral magnesium is important for the immune system and also influences the blood circulation and many important organs. For example, it plays a role in liver function and electrolyte balance and is also important for muscles and nerves.
- Sodium: The mineral sodium influences muscle contractions and is also important for the transmission of nerve impulses.
- Phosphorus: The mineral phosphorus helps calcium to strengthen teeth and bones, it is also necessary for cell building.
- Zinc: The trace element zinc is involved in many metabolic functions. It also helps over 300 enzymes to do their job properly. Zinc is also important for the regeneration of the skin.
Cannabidiol oil gets its golden yellow shimmer from the carotenoids. These also protect against premature aging, strengthen the cell membranes and also support the immune system. Beta carotene in particular is known to have a protective effect on the cardiovascular system. It prevents the narrowing of arteries and also has a positive influence on cholesterol levels.
CBD oil also contains chlorophyll, which gives the oil its green colour. Chlorophyll is very important for the body because, similar to haemoglobin, it has an influence on optimal cell respiration. If the cells can breathe properly, they can also be cleansed and detoxified. This improves the supply of fresh oxygen and thus has a positive effect on the immune system.
History and origin of the hemp plant
It cannot be denied that cannabis plants have many conspicuous features in their appearance alone. Such a conspicuous plant does not remain unexplored for long, let alone unknown. From this point of view alone, it is easy to explain why the discovery and use of hemp is very early in the history of mankind. Probably already more than 10,000 years B.C. cultivated and cultivated. Its roots reach back to ancient China. There the plant played a significant role in agriculture and use for other purposes. If at first only the seeds were used as food for animals and humans, people soon discovered that stems and fibres were also suitable for other purposes.
Within a short period of time, countless possibilities for using cannabis arose, e.g. to produce textiles and paper. Possibly long before Christ, but certainly in the second or third century AD, Chinese physicians used cannabis as an analgesic.
Auch, wenn dies nicht sicher festgestellt werden kann, stammt die Pflanze offenbar aus Kasachstan. Von dort aus breitete sie sich nach Süd- und Ostasien aus. Nicht nur in China, sondern auch in Indien erfreute sich die Pflanze großer Beliebtheit, da überall die vielfältigen Nutzungsmöglichkeiten erkannt wurden.
Während die Pflanze aus Asien kaum wegzudenken war, ahnten die Europäer wahrscheinlich nicht einmal etwas von einem solchen Alleskönner. Erst vor 5.000 bis 6.000 Jahren erreichten Hanfpflanzen Mitteleuropa – ein „wichtiger“ Schritt in der Geschichte von Cannabis.
In ancient Egypt as well as in ancient Greece, hemp textiles were already used. In Ancient Rome people already knew that the consumption of cannabis brought "cheerfulness" and used it in medicine, again for pain relief. Through the church it came to first criticisms. It accused those who used cannabis of being in league with the devil. So the plant first disappeared from public view until Charlemagne helped it to new fame. From then on, the cultivation of cannabis was considered normal in Europe. Christopher Columbus also brought the stimulant to America, where it accompanied many eras. The stimulant eased the slaves' poor living conditions under their masters, for example, and was primarily assigned to African Americans, similar to jazz. In fact, jazz and cannabis belonged together.
Cannabis wird verboten
In 1916, however, the campaign against cannabis begins in America. The leader of the hunt is a man named Harry Anslinger, who is appointed head of the State Narcotics and Drug Administration. The reason for the appointment to this office and for the anti-cannabis campaign in general is the realization that cannabis is a better alternative for paper production than wood, which seems to be a disadvantage for people who work in this field. It soon becomes clear that this affects not only the wood industry, but also the textile industry and many other economic sectors. One group of entrepreneurs agrees: A cannabis ban offers the opportunity to make more profit. They spread rumours, call for a boycott and badmouth the products.
Although the American Declaration of Independence was written on hemp paper and one of the most famous American presidents, George Washington, grew cannabis himself, the demonization of cannabis came from America. The reasons given are often very doubtful, false or irrelevant. Nevertheless, this movement succeeded in convincing many other people of the danger that is allegedly hidden behind cannabis.